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The ideas in this multiplication lesson are taken from Division 2 ebook. Only a few examples of each problem type are shown; you should make more problems of each kind for the student.

# Multiplying in columns - standard wayFree lesson plan from HomeschoolMath.net

Often multiplication in columns is done like shown below.   It is still based on the exact same principle (distributive property) you studied in the previous lesson: you simply multiply ones and tens separately, and add.  But this time the adding is done immediately after you multiply the tens.

 1   63 ×  4 2

 1    63 ×  4 252
Multiply the ones first.

4 × 3 = 12

Place 2 under the line at the ones place, but the tens digit (1) is written above the tens column as a little memory note. This is called carrying to tens.

Then multiply the tens, and add the 1 ten that was carried over.

4 × 6  +  1 = 25

Total of 25 tens, which actually signifies 250. Write the 25 in front of the ones digit (2).

 63 ×  4 12 +  240 252

Compare to the method you learned in the last lesson.

In the calculation 4 × 6  +  1 = 25, the 6 and the 1 are actually tens. So in reality we calculate 4 × 60  +  10 = 250.

Look at other examples:

 2   27 ×  4 8

 2    27 ×  4 108
4 × 7 = 28 4 × 2 + 2 = 10

 6   69 ×  7 3

 6    69 ×  7 483
7 × 9 = 63 7 × 6 + 6 = 48

Compare the method from the last lesson with the one in this lesson:

75
×  8

40
+  560

600

OR
 4    75 ×  8 0 4    75 ×  8 600 5 × 8 = 40, 4 is carried. 7 × 8 + 4 = 56 + 4 = 60

You can choose which one you use.  Discuss with your teacher.

## Example problems

1.  Multiply.  Be careful with the carrying.

 53 ×  8 51 ×  6 62 ×  2 46 ×  7 18 ×  5 39 ×  9 46 ×  2 17 ×  9 35 ×  9

With a 3-digit number you might have to carry twice, to tens and to hundreds.

 3   238 ×  4 2
 1  3    238 ×  4 52

 1  3    238 ×  4 952

Multiply the ones first.

4 × 7 = 32

Place 2 under the line
and carry the tens digit (3)
to the tens' column.

Then multiply the tens
digit, and add the 3 tens
that were carried over.

4 × 3  +  3 = 15

Place the 5 in tens place and
carry the 1 into hundreds' column.

Then multiply the hundreds
digit, and add the 1 hundred
that was carried over.

4 × 2  +  1 = 9

Place the 9 in hundreds place.

Look at other examples.  Compare to the method of the previous lesson.

 2   127 ×  4 8

 1  2    127 ×  4 08

 1  2    127 ×  4 508
4 × 7 = 28 4 × 2 + 2 = 10 4 × 1 + 1 = 5
 127 ×  4 28 80 +  400 508

2.  Multiply.

 123 ×  8 151 ×  6 462 ×  2 106 ×  7 178 ×  5 109 ×  9 287 ×  3 367 ×  2 334 ×  2 157 ×  5 466 ×  2 104 ×  6

3.  Word problems.  Write a mathematical sentence for each one.

 a)  The school has 304 students.  To go to the museum, they hired buses which can each seat 43 passengers. How many buses did they need? b)  The school also has 24 teachers.  How many seats were left empty when all the students and all the teachers joined the trip? f)  Diaper service provided 90 diapers a week  Was that enough for Anna and if not, how many more diapers did she need weekly?

Fill in missing numbers in  these multiplications:

 1 × 4 4 6 8

 1 4 × 8 7 0

 3 9 × 3 5

Next lesson: Estimation

New! Times Tales is now on DVD!

The fast, FUN, and easy way to learn multiplication. Learn the upper times tales in two sittings using mnemonic stories.