Fact families and basic addition and subtraction facts
This article explains how to use fact families to help children learn the basic addition and subtraction facts (with singledigit numbers), and also contains a complete example lesson with exercises and word problems about fact families where the sum is 13 or 14.
Sample pages (PDF)
Contents & Introduction
Trick with 9 and 8
Review: Completing the Next Whole Ten
Adding with 8
Number Rainbows  11 and 12
Fact Families with 13
What is a fact family?
A fact family is a group of math facts using the same numbers. In the case of addition/subtraction, you use three numbers and get four facts. For example, you can form a fact family using the three numbers 10, 2, and 12: 10 + 2 = 12, 2 + 10 = 12, 12 − 10 = 2, and 12 − 2 = 10.
Where do we use fact families?
We can use fact families to reinforce or learn the connection between addition and subtraction, and to help children memorize the basic addition & subtraction facts. The two videos below explain several strategies for learning addition and subtraction facts, including number rainbows and fact families.
After the videos, there follows a complete lesson with many exercises and word problems about fact families with 13 and 14 (where the sum is 13 or 14), taken from my book Math Mammoth Add & Subtract 2A.
A Lesson on Fact Families  sums with 13 and 14
1. Fill in. In each fact family, color the marbles so they match the numbers in it.
Fact families with 13 








2. Connect with a line the problems that
are from the same fact family. You
don't need to
write the answers.
13 − 7 =
5 + = 12 11 − 3 = 8 + = 13 12 − 3 = 7 + = 11 

11 − 4 =
11 − 8 = 5 + = 13 12 − 5 = 6 + = 13 9 + = 12 
12 − 7 =
13 − 6 = 3 + = 12 13 − 5 = 3 + = 11 4 + = 11 
3. Fill in. In each fact family, color the marbles so they match the numbers in it.
Fact families with 14 








4. Subtract.
a. 13 − 8 = ____ 14 − 6 = ____ 
b. 13 −
5 =
____ 13 − 4 = ____ 
c. 12 −
7 =
____ 13 − 7 = ____ 
d. 12 −
9 =
____ 14 − 9 = ____ 
5. Find the missing numbers.
a. 9 + = 14 
b. 6 + = 14 
c. 6 + = 12 
d. − 9 = 4  e. − 7 = 7  f. − 9 = 3 
g. 14 − = 8  h. 12 − = 7  i. 13 − = 8 
6. Solve the word problems.
a.
Ted arranged his toy cars in rows. The first row had
seven cars, the second had seven, and the third row had four. How many cars does Ted have? 
b. If you have 14 strawberries and I have
eight,
how many more do you have? 
c. Dad
has six cherries and Mom has five more than him. How many cherries does Mom have?

d. At first Mom had 20 apples to make a pie,
but she gave each of the four children one apple before she made the pie. How many apples did she have left for the pie? 
7. Figure out the patterns and continue them!
a. 









40 
48 
56 
64  72  _____  _____  _____  _____ 
b. 









17  21  25  29  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____ 
This lesson is taken from my book Math Mammoth Add & Subtract 2A. The lesson addresses the following Common Core standards for 2nd grade: 2.OA.1 and 2.OA.2.
Math Mammoth Add & Subtract 2A
A selfteaching worktext for 2nd grade that covers “easy” additions and subtractions within 0100; such as 24 + 5 and 89 − 7, or adding or subtracting whole tens; memorizing the basic addition facts of singledigit numbers, and learning to use them with subtraction.
Download ($3.95). Also available as a printed copy.